International and Cultural Implications on Internationalization Analysis of Multinational Firms

José G. Vargas-Hernández

Abstract


This paper is aims to analyze some of the institutional and cultural implications on internationalization analysis of multinational firms. The analysis begins questioning what the main institutional and cultural variables are considered in the involvement of internationalization of multinational firms. To answer this question, a literature review types approach in areas like internationalization of multinational firms based on institutional and cultural frameworks is followed. Secondly, these institutional and cultural variables are analyzed to integrate findings. Finally, the paper argues the need to design a better institutional and cultural balance among the development of a glocal-regional transformation, convergence and governance. 


Keywords


Cultural variables: Institutional variables; Internationalization; Multinational firms.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adler, N., (1980). Cultural synergy: the management of cross-cultural organizations, in Burke, W., Goodstein, C.D. (Eds.). Trends and Issues in O.D.: Current Theory and Practice, University Associates, San Diego, CA, pp.163-84.

Ancona, D. G., (1987). Groups in organizations: Extending laboratory models. In C. Hendrick (Ed.), Group processes and intergroup relations (pp. 178-202). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Aoki, M. (2001). Towards a comparative institutional analysis. MIT Press.

Ashton, A., (2002a). Powerful incentives put TRW on the road to success, Human Resource Management International Digest, 10(01): 9 – 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09670730210791710

Ashton, A., (2002b). Strategic Compensation: How to align performance, pay and rewards to support corporate transformation, The report is available from Business Intelligence Ltd, Third Floor, 22-24 Worple Road, Wimbledon, London SW19 4DD. World Wide Web: www.business-intelligence.co.uk

Baba, M. L., Gluesing, J., Ratner, H., & Wagner, K. H., (2004). The contexts of knowing: Natural history of a globally distributed team. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25: 547-587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.259

Baird, I.S., Lyles, M.A., Wharton, R., (1990). Attitudinal differences between American and Chinese managers regarding joint venture management, Management International Review, 30: 53-68.

Bantel, K., Jackson, S., (1989). Top management and innovation in banking: does the composition of the top team make a difference? Strategic Management Journal, 10:107-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250100709

Bantz, C. R., (1993). Understanding organizations: Interpreting organizational communication cultures with a case study by Gerald Pepper. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. 250 pages.

Barkema, H., Bell, J., Pennings, J., (1996). Foreign entry, cultural barriers, and learning, Strategic Management Journal, 17(2):151-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199602)17:2<151::AID-SMJ799>3.0.CO;2-Z

Barrios, S. and Benito-Ostolaza, J. M., (2008). The location decisions of multinationals and the cultural link: evidence from Spanish direct investment abroad. Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 29(2): 181-196.

Bettis, R.A., Hall, W.K., Prahalad, C.K., (1978). Diversity and performance in the multibusiness firm, National Proceedings of the American Institute for Decision Sciences: 210-222.

Brannen, M. J., (2003). What is culture and why does it matter? Current conceptualizations of culture from anthropology. In N. A. Byacigiller, R. A. Goodman, & M. E. Phillips (Eds.), Crossing cultures: Insights from master teachers (pp. 20-37). New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203218693_chapter_3

Brannen, M.Y., Salk, J.E., (2000). Partnering across borders: negotiating organizational culture in a German-Japanese joint venture, Human Relations, Vol. 53 (4): 451-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726700534001

Brodbeck, F.C., Frese, M., Akerblom, S., Audia, G., Bakacsi, G., Bendova, H., Bodega, D., Bodur, M., Booth, S., Brenk, K., Castel, P., Den Hartog, D., Donnelly-Cox, G., Gratchev, M.V., Holmberg, I., Jarmuz, S., Correia, J., Jorbenadse, R., Kabasakal, H.E., Keating, M., Kipiani, G., Konrad, E., Koopman, P., Kurc, A., Leeds, C., Lindell, M., Maczynski, J., Martin, G.S., O'Connell, J., Papalexandris, A., Papalexandris, N., Prieto, J.M., Rakitski, B., Reber, G., Sabadin, A., Schramm-Nielsen, J., Schultz, M., Sigfrids, C., Szabo, E., Thierry, H., Vondrysova, M., Weibler, J., Wilderom, C., Witkowski, S., Wunderer, R., (2000). Cultural variation of leadership prototypes across 22 European countries, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73:1-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317900166859

Broome, B., (1993). Building share meaning: implications of a relational approach to empathy for teaching intercultural communication, Communication Education, 40(3): 235-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634529109378847

Brown, L., Rugman, A., Verbeke, A., (1988). Japanese joint ventures with western multinationals: synthesizing the economic and cultural explanations of failure, Asian Pacific Journal of Management, 6(2): 225-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01733766

Cartwright, S., Cooper, C.L., (1993). The role of compatibility in successful organizational marriage, Academy of Management Executive, 7(2): 57-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/ame.1993.9411302324

Casmir, F.L., (1993). Third culture building: a paradigm shift for international and intercultural communication, Communication Yearbook, 16: 407-28.

Caves, R., (1996). Multinational Enterprise and Economic Analysis. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Chao, G. T., & Moon, H., (2005). The cultural mosaic: A metatheory for understanding the complexity of culture. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90: 1128-1140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1128

Chen, C., Greenberger, E., Lestea; J., Dong, Q. & Guo, M.-S., (1998a). A cross-cultural study of family and peer correlates of adolescent misconduct. Developmental Psychology, 34: 770-781. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.34.4.770

Chen, X., Hastings, P. D., Rubin, K. H., Chen, H., Cen, G., & Stewart, S. L., (1998b). Child-rearing attitudes and behavioral inhibition in Chinese and Canadian toddlers: A cross-cultural study. Developmental Psychology, 34: 677-686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.34.4.677

Chi Cui, C., Ball, D.F., Coyne, J., (2002). Working effectively in strategic alliances through managerial fit between partners: some evidence from Sino-British joint ventures and the implications for R&D professionals. R&D Management, 32(4): 343-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9310.00265

Cogburn, D. L., & Levinson, N. S., (2003). U.S.–Africa virtual collaboration in globalization studies: Success factors for complex, cross-national learning teams. International Studies Perspectives, 4: 31-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1528-3577.04103

Cronen, V.E., Shuter, R., (1983). Forming intercultural bonds, in Gudykunst, W.B. (Eds), Intercultural Communication Theory, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA:89-118.

Chudoba, K. M., Wynn, E., Lu, M., & Watson-Manheim, M. B., (2005). How virtual are we? Measuring virtuality and understanding its impact on a global organization. Information Systems Journal, 15: 279-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2575.2005.00200.x

Das, R., (1981). Managing Diversification: The General Management Perspective, Macmillan, New Delhi.

Davila, A., Pérez, A. L. y Habermann, G. E., (2005). Culture in organizations of the computer industry: Insights from Latin America. Academy of Management

Dávila-Martínez, A. d. R., Pérez-Salazar, A. L., & Habermann-Gastelum, G. E., (2001). Culture in the high technology organization: Manifestations in Latin America. Workshop in Organization Design and Information. ESAM,. Bélgica. Mayo. ISBN:000.

Davis, H.J., Rasool, A., (1988). Values research and managerial behavior implications for devising culturally consistent managerial styles, Management International Review, 28(3):11-20.

Dollinger, M.J., Danis, W., (1998). Preferred decision-making styles: a cross-cultural comparison. Psychological Reports, 82(3):755-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1998.82.3.755

Doner, R., (2001). Institutions and the tasks of economic upgrading. Paper prepared for delivery at the 2001 annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco.

Dorfman, P.W., Howell, J.P., (1988). Dimensions of national culture and effective leadership patterns: Hofstede revisited, Advances in International Comparative Management, JAI Press, Inc., Greenwich, CT, 3: 127-50.

Dunning, J.H., (2006). Space, location and distance in international business activities. Paper presented at annual meeting of European Academy of International Business, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Dutton, J.E., Jackson, E.E., (1987). Categorizing strategic issues: links to organizational action, Academy of Management Review, 12(1):76-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/257995

Dyer, J., & Kale, P., (2007). Relational capabilities: Drivers and implications. In C. E. Helfat, S. Finkelstein, W. Mitchell, M. A. Peteraf, H. Singh, D. J. Teece & S. G. Winter (Eds.), Dynamic capabilities, Understanding strategic change in organizations: 65-79. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Erez, M., & Gati, E. (2004). A dynamic, multi-level model of culture: From the micro level of the individual to the macro level of a global culture. Journal of Applied Psychology, 53: 583-598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2004.00190.x

Finkelstein, S. (1988). Managerial orientations and organizational outcomes: the moderating roles of managerial discretion and power, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Gibson, C. B., & Gibbs, J. L., (2006). Unpacking the concept of virtuality: The effects of geographic dispersion, electronic dependence, dynamic structure, and national diversity on team innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51: 451-495.

Goodwin, G. F., & Halpin, S. M. (2006, May). Multinational, multicultural teams: Leadership challenges in the U.S. Army. In S. J. Zaccaro, T. Koehler, & G. Yun (Chairs), Global at work, but local at heart! Symposium presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Annual Conference, Dallas, TX.

Grupo Bimbo, (2009). Responsabilidad Social En Grupo Bimbo. Grupo Bimbo's CSR Presentation 2009: 1-12.

Guerrieri, P. and Tylecote, A., (1997). Interindustry Differences in Technical Changes and National Patterns of Technological Accumulation, in C. Edquist (ed) Systems of Innovation : 107-129.

Guillén, M. F. and García-Canal E., (2009). The American Model of the Multinational Firm and the "New" Multinationals from Emerging Economies. Academy of Management Perspectives. 2009: 23-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMP.2009.39985538

Hage, J., Dewar, R., (1973). Elite, values versus organizational structure in predicting innovations, Administrative Science Quarterly, 18: 279-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391664

Harvey, M., Novicevic, M. M., & Garrison, G., (2005). Global virtual teams: A human resource capital architecture. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16: 1583-1599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585190500239119

Hellweg, S.A., Samovar, L.A., Skow, L. (1994). Cultural variations in negotiation styles, in Samovar, L.A., Porter, R.E. (Eds), Intercultural Communication: A Reader, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, CA, pp.286-93.

Hitt, M.A., Dancin, M.T., Levitas, E., Arregle, J., Borza, A. (2000). Partner selection in emerging and developed market contexts: resource-based and organizational learning perspectives, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43 No.3, pp.449-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1556404

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London, UK: McGraw-Hill.

Hofstede, G. (1984). Hofstede's culture dimensions: an independent validation using Rokeach's value survey, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 15 No.4, pp.417-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002184015004003

Hofstede, G. J. (1980). Culture's consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Huber, G. P. (1991). Organizational learning: The contributing processes and the literatures. Organization Science, 2(1): 88-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2.1.88

Hambrick, D.C. (1989). Putting top managers back in the strategy picture, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 10 pp.5-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250100703

Hollander, E.P., Offermann, L.R. (1990). Power and leadership in organization: relationships in transition, American Psychologist, Vol. 45 No.2, pp.179-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.2.179

Husted B. W., and Allen, D. B. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in the multinational enterprise: strategic and institutional approaches. Journal of International Business Studies (2006) 37, 838–849. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400227

Inkpen, A.C. (2000). Learning through joint ventures: a framework of knowledge acquisition, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 37 No.7, pp.1019-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00215

Inkpen, A.C., Beamish, P.W. (1997). Knowledge, bargaining power, and the instability of international alliances. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 22 No.1, pp.177-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/259228

Inkpen, A.C., Birkenshaw, J. (1994). International joint ventures and performance: an interorganizational perspective, International Business Review, Vol. 3 No.3, pp.201-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0969-5931(94)90002-7

Jamali, D. and Mirshak, R. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Theory And Practice In A Developing Country Context. Journal Of Business Ethics, 72: pp. 243-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-006-9168-4

Jarvenpaa, S. L., Knoll, K., & Leidner, D. E. (1998). Is anybody out there? Antecedents of trust in global virtual teams. Journal of Management Information Systems, 14, 29-64.

Jenks, C. (1993). Culture. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203446317

Kayworth, T. R., & Leidner, D. E. (2001-2002). Leadership effectiveness in global virtual teams. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18, 7-40.

Kets de Vries, M., Miller, D. (1986). Personality, culture, and organization, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 11 No.2, pp.266-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/258459

Kilman, R. H. and Saxton, M. J. (1983). Kilmann-Saxton culture gap survey. Tuxedo, N. Y. Organizational Design Consultants.

Kogut, B. (1989). The stability of joint ventures: reciprocity and competitive rivalry, Journal of Industrial Economics, Vol. 38 pp.183-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2098529

Kumar, R., Andersen, P.H. (2000). Inter firm diversity and the management of meaning in international strategic alliances, International Business Review, Vol. 9 No.2, pp.237-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0969-5931(99)00038-4

Lane, H.W., Beamish, P.W. (1990). Cross-cultural cooperative behavior in joint ventures in LDCs. Management International Review, Vol. 30 No. Special Issue, pp.87-102.

Lall, S. (1983). The new multinationals. New York: Wiley.

Lecraw, D.J. (1993). Outward direct investment by Indonesian firms: motivation and effects", Journal of International Business Studies (Third Quarter), pp. 589-600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490247

Lee, M., & Barnett, G. A. (1997). A symbols-and-meaning approach to the organizational cultures of banks in the United States, Japan, and Taiwan. Communication Research, 24, 394-412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009365097024004004

Likert, R. (1961), New Patterns of Management, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Lindsley, S. L. (1999). Communication and "the Mexican way": Stability and trust as core symbols in Maquiladoras. Western Journal of Communication, 63, 1-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319909374626

Lundvall, B.-Å. (1999). National Business Systems and National Innovation Systems. International Studies of Management and Organization. No. 2, Summer, 1999. 60-77.

Maruping, L. M., & Agarwal, R. (2004). Managing team interpersonal processes through technology: A task-technology fit perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 975-990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.6.975

Meschi, P., Roger, A. (1994). Cultural context and social effectiveness in international joint ventures, Management International Review, Vol. 34 No.3, pp.197-215.

Newman, K.L., Nollen, S.D. (1996). Culture and congruence: the fit between management practices and national culture, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 27 pp.753-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490152

Nohria, N. & Ghoshal, S. (1997) The differentiated network: Organizing multinational corporations for value creation. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Norburn, D., Birley, S., Dunn, M., Payne, A. (1989). A four nation study of the relationship between marketing effectiveness, corporate culture, and market orientation, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 21 No.3, pp.451-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490828

O'Reilly, C.A. III, Chatman, J.A., Caldwell, D. (1991). People and organizational culture: a profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 34 No.3, pp.487-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256404

Oertig, M., & Buegri, T. (2006). The challenges of managing cross-cultural virtual project teams. Team Performance Management, 12(1-2), 23-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13527590610652774

Oetzel, J. G. (1998). Explaining individual communication processes in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups individualism-collectivism and self-construal. Human Communication Research, 25, 202-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1998.tb00443.x

Orbe, M.P. (1996). Laying the foundation for co-cultural communication theory: An inductive approach to studying "non-dominant" communication strategies and the factors that influence them. Communication Studies 47, 157-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510979609368473

Osland, J., & Bird, A. (2000). Beyond sophisticated stereotyping: Cultural sensemaking in Context. Academy of Management Executive, 14, 65-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/ame.2000.2909840

Pangarkar, N., Klein, S. (2001). The impact of alliance purpose and partner similarity on alliance governance. British Journal of Management, Vol. 12 pp.341-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00214

Park, S., Ungson, G. (1997). The effect of national culture, organizational complementarity, and economic motivation on joint venture dissolution, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 40 No.2, pp.279-307. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256884

Parkhe, A. (1993). Messy research, methodological predispositions, and theory development in international joint ventures, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18 No.2, pp.227-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/258759

Pavvet, C. and Morris, T. (1995). Management styles within a multinational corporation: a five country comparative study. Human Relations (HR), 48(??), 1171 - 91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679504801004

Paul, K. et al., (2006). Corporate Social Reporting In Mexico. Greenleaf Publishing, JCC, July, pp. 67-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.9774/gleaf.4700.2006.su.00009

Paul, S., Samarah, I. M., Seetharaman, P., & Myktyn, P. P. (2005). An empirical investigation of collaborative conflict management style in group support system-based global virtual teams. Journal of Management Information Systems, 21, 185-222.

Pearce, R. and Papanastassiou, M. (1999). Overseas R&D and the strategic evolution of MNCs: evidence from laboratories in the UK, Research Policy, 28: 23-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-7333(98)00104-8

Peinado-Vara, E. (2005).Corporate Social Responsibility In Latin America: Responsible Solutions For Business And Social Problems. Inter American Development Bank, Washington, D.C., December, pp. 1-13.

Perez Chavarria M. (2001). An approach—from the standpoint of communication—to the interpretation of the organizational culture of a Mexican multinational: The Cemex case. World Futures: Journal of General Evolution Volume 57, Issue 5, 2001, Pages 417 – 433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02604027.2001.9972842

Perlmutter, H., Heenan, D.H. (1986). Thinking ahead. Harvard Business Review, March-April, pp.136-52.

Pothukuchi, V., Damanpour, F., Choi, J., Chen, C.C., Park, S.H. (2002). National and organizational culture differences and international joint venture performance, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 33 No.2, pp.243-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8491015

Prahalad, C.K. and Doz, Y.L. (1987). The Multinational Mission: Balancing Local Demands and Global Vision, The Free Press: New York, NY.

Rao, P. (2009a). The role of national culture on Mexican staffing practices. Employee Relations. Volume: 31 Issue: 3, 2009.

Rao, P. (2009b) International survey research: Understanding national cultures to increase survey response rate. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal Volume: 16 Issue: 2, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13527600910953919

Rabbino, H., Chávez, A. and García, R. (s.f.). GRASP the future: how applied systems thinking are shaping a Mexican multinational. Mimeo.

Rasters, G., Vissers, G. & Dankbear, B., (2002). An inside look—Rich communication through lean media in a virtual research team. Small Group Research, 33: 718-734. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046496402238622

Rodríguez, C. M., (2005). Emergence of a third culture: shared leadership in international strategic alliances, International Marketing Review, 22(1): 67 – 95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02651330510581181

Rodriguez, C.M., Wilson, D.T. (2002)). Relationship bonding and trust as a foundation for commitment in US-Mexican strategic alliances: a structural equation modeling approach, Journal of International Marketing, 10(4): 53-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jimk.10.4.53.19553

Rodriguez, C.M., Wilson, D.T., (1995). Trust me!!!… but how? Relationship bonding as an antecedent of trust in international strategic alliances: USA-Mexico, a latent variable structural modeling approach. ISBM Working Paper Series.

Rousseau, D.M., (1990). Assessing organizational culture: the case for multiple methods, in Schneider, B. (Eds), Organizational Climate and Culture, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA: 153-92.

Rousseau, D.M. and Schalk, R. (Eds), (2000), Psychological Contracts in Employment: Cross-national Perspectives, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Sagie, A. and Aycan, Z., (2003). A cross-cultural analysis of participative decision-making in organizations. Human Relations, 56: 453-473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726703056004003

Sarkar, M.B., Echambadi, R., Cavusgil, S.T., Aulakh, P.S., (2001). The influence of complementarity, compatibility, and relationship capital on alliance performance, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(4): 358-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03079450094216

Sarker, S., (2005). Knowledge transfer and collaboration in distributed U.S.–Thai teams. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(4). Retrieved April 5, 2007, from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol10/issue4/sarker.html, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2005.tb00278.x

Saunders, C., Van Slyke, C., & Vogel, D. R., (2004). My time or yours? Managing time visions in global virtual teams. Academy of Management Executive, 18: 19-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.2004.12691177

Senge, P., (1990). The fifth discipline the art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.

Shuter, R., (1983). On third-culture building: commentary on Casmir, Communication Yearbook, 16: 429-36.

Simonin, B.L., (1999). Ambiguity and the process of knowledge transfer in strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 20: 595-623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199907)20:7<595::AID-SMJ47>3.0.CO;2-5

Sparrow, P., Harris, H. and Brewster, C., (2004). Globalising Human Resource Management. London: Routledge.

Starosta, W., Olorunnisola, A., (1992). Third culture building, unpublished manuscript.

Stohl, C. (2001). Globalizing organizational communication. In F. M. Jablin & L. L. Putnam (Eds.), The new handbook of organizational communication: Advances in theory, research, and methods (pp. 323-375). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Teagarden, M.B., Von Glinow, M.A. (1990). Contextual determinants of HRM effectiveness in cooperative alliances: Mexican evidence. Management International Review, Vol. 30 pp.23-36.

Teague, P., (2003). Labour-standard setting and regional trading blocks: Lesson drawing from NAFTA experience. Employee relations, 25(5). http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01425450310490156

Ting-Toomey, S., (1999). Communicating across cultures. New York: Guilford. Townsend, A. M., DeMarie, S. M., & Hendrickson, A. R. (1998). Virtual teams: Technology and the workplace of the future. Academy of Management Executive, 12: 17-29.

Tregaskis, O., Edwards, T., Edwards, P., Ferner, A and Marginson, P., (2010). context and national embeddedness transnational learning structures in multinational firms: Organizational context and national embeddedness. Human Relations, 63(4): 471-499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726709339095

Triandis, H. C. 1995. Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Trice, H. M. and Beyer, J. M. 1993. The cultures of work organizations. Prentice Hall.

Tushman, M.L., Virany, B., Romanelli, E., (1985). Executive succession strategy reorientation and organization evolution, Technology and Society, Vol. 7 pp.297-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-791X(85)90031-4

Very, P., Calori, R., Lubatkin, M., (1993). An investigation of national and organizational cultural influences in recent European mergers. In Shrivastava, P., Huff, A., Dutton, J. (Eds), Advances in Strategic Management, JAI Press, Grenwich, 9: 323-46.

Watson-Manheim, M. B., Chudoba, K. M., & Crowston, K., (2002). Discontinuities and continuities: A new way to understand virtual work. Information Technology & People, 15: 191-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09593840210444746

Weyzig, F., (2006). Local and Global Dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility in Mexico. SOMO (Centre For Research Of Multinational Corporations), The Nederlands.

Workman, M., (2005). Virtual team culture and the amplification of team boundary permeability on team performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16: 435-458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.1149

Wright, N. S., & Drewery, G. P., (2006). Forming cohesion in culturally heterogeneous teams: Differences in Japanese, Pacific Islander and Anglo experiences. Cross Cultural Management, 13: 43-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13527600610643475

Yoo, Y., & Torrey, B., (2002). National culture and knowledge management in a global learning organization. In C. W. Choo & N. Bontis (Eds.), The strategic management of intellectual capital and organizational knowledge (pp. 421-435). New York: Oxford University Press.

Young, A. (1928): Increasing returns and economic progress, Economic Journal 38, 527–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2224097

Yuan, Y. C., & Gay, G., (2006). Homophile of network ties and bonding and briding social capital, in computer-mediated distributed teams. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(4). Retrieved April 5, 2007, from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol11/issue4/yuan.html, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00308.x

Zakaria, N., Amelinckx, A., & Wilemon, D., (2004). Working together apart? Building a knowledge-sharing culture for global virtual teams. Creativity and Innovation Management, 13: 15-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2004.00290.x




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/jefs.v3i02.101

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
';



Copyright (c) 2015 José G. Vargas-Hernández

.............................................................................................................................

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

.............................................................................................................................

If you find difficulties in submitting manuscript please forward your doc file to support@journalofeconomics.org. Our support team will assist you in submission process and other technical matters. Please note that documents uploaded by yourself are reviewed more quickly than replies by e-mail.

In order to get notifications on inbox please add  this domain journalofeconomics.org in your email safe list.

.............................................................

ISSN 2379-9463(Print)
ISSN 2379-9471(Online)

...........................................................